社會主義

私有財產和收入的分配受到社會控制的一種社會組織體系;也指將這類體系付諸實施的政治運動。由於「社會控制」一語的含義可作多種解釋,所以社會主義也有種種的差異,可以是中央集權論者,也可以是自由意志論者;可以是馬克思主義的,也可以是自由主義的。社會主義一詞最初是用來描述法國傅立葉(F.-M.-C. Fourier)、圣西門(Henri de Saint-Simon)以及英國歐文(R. Owen)闡發的理論,他們主張在一種非強制性的合作社區中,人們共同進行無競爭的勞動,謀求全體人民心靈和物質上的幸福(參閱utopia)。此後馬克思和恩格斯將社會主義看作是從資本主義通向共產主義道路上的一個歷史轉折階段,將社會主義運動中他們認為有用的部分挪用來發展他們的「科學社會主義」。在20世紀,蘇聯是那種嚴格的中央集權社會主義的典范,而瑞典和丹麥則采納眾所周知的非共產主義的社會主義。亦請參閱collectivism、communitarianism、social democracy。

socialism

System of social organization in which private property and the distribution of income are subject to social control; also, the political movements aimed at putting that system into practice. Because “social control” may be interpreted in widely diverging ways, socialism ranges from statist to libertarian, from Marxist to liberal. The term was first used to describe the doctrines of Charles Fourier, Henri de Saint-Simon, and Robert Owen, who emphasized noncoercive communities of people working noncompetitively for the spiritual and physical well-being of all (see utopian socialism). Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, seeing socialism as a transition state between capitalism and communism, appropriated what they found useful in socialist movements to develop their “scientific socialism.” In the 20th century, the Soviet Union was the principal model of strictly centralized socialism, while Sweden and Denmark were well-known for their noncommunist socialism. See also collectivism, communitarianism, social democracy.

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