摩納哥

正式名稱為摩納哥公國(Principality of Monaco)

地中海沿岸近法-義邊界的獨立君主國。面積約1.9平方公里。人口約31,800(2001)。居民大多是法國公民,有少數義大利人。只有約15%為摩納哥後裔。語言︰法語(官方語)。宗教:天主教。貨幣︰法郎(F)。該地區史前時代便有人居住,主要有腓尼基人、希臘人、迦太基人和羅馬人。1191年熱那亞人占據此地;1297年起格里馬爾迪家族開始其長期統治。除1524~1641年間受西班牙的保護外,格里馬爾迪家族一直與法國結盟。1793年摩納哥被法國吞并,拿破侖垮臺後,格里馬爾迪家族又回到摩納哥。1815年受薩丁尼亞保護。根據1861年的協定摩納哥將芒通和羅克布呂訥兩城鎮割讓給法國,摩納哥同時獲得獨立。摩納哥是歐洲最豪華的觀光勝地,特別是蒙地卡羅的賭博中心、國際賽車比賽和海灘,F今統治者雷尼爾三世於1997年慶祝格里馬爾迪家族統治摩納哥七百年。

Monaco

Independent principality, on the Mediterranean Sea near the France-Italy border. Area: .73 sq mi (1.9 sq km). Population (1997 est.): 32,000. The majority of Monaco's population is composed of French citizens, with a small minority of Italians. Less than 15% are of Monagesque descent. Language: French (official). Religion: Roman Catholicism. Currency: French franc. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the area was known to the Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, and Romans. In 1191 the Genoese took possession of it; in 1297 the reign of the Grimaldi family began. The Grimaldis allied themselves with France except for the period 1524-1641, when they were under the protection of Spain. France annexed Monaco in 1793, and it remained under French control until the fall of Napoleon, when the Grimaldis returned. In 1815 it was put under the protection of Sardinia. A treaty in 1861 called for the sale of the towns of Menton and Roquebrune to France and the establishment of Monaco's independence. Monaco is one of Europe's most luxurious resorts, known for its Monte Carlo gambling center, international sports car races, and beaches. In 1997 the 700-year rule of the Grimaldis, now under Prince Rainier, was celebrated.

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