田納西

美國東南偏中部一州。面積109,152平方公里,首府納什維爾。大煙山脈為其東部邊緣,密西西比河則構成其西部邊界。田納西河谷穿越全州大部。氣候溫和,屬地大約半數為森林覆蓋。早期原為美洲印第安人聚居地,其中有奇克索人、切羅基人以及肖尼人。16~17世紀時西班牙、法國以及英國探險家們先後抵達。英國的卡羅來納特許以及法國聲稱對路易斯安那擁有主權時都曾將此地納入,但在法國印第安人戰爭後此地被正式割讓給英國。大約在1770年左右首批永久移民到達。在1785年之前這里曾為北卡羅來納州的一部分。但1785年當地居民試圖脫離北卡羅來納并成立了一個自由的富蘭克林州。1789年北卡羅來納撤回了其訴求,田納西於1796年成為美國的第16個州。1861年田納西脫離聯邦;此後美國南北戰爭中的多次激戰,如塞羅戰役、查塔諾加戰役、斯通斯河戰役以及納什維爾戰役都發生在這里。1866年田納西成為首個再次被接納加入聯邦的州。在重建時期,當地黑人失去了他們本來就很少的一點權力。第二次世界大戰後,這里成為美國民權運動的一片試驗場。該州的經濟以制造業為主。田納西河流域管理局擁有美國最大的電力生產系統。人口約5,368,000(1997)。

Tennessee

State (pop., 1997 est.: 5,368,000), southeastern central U.S. It occupies 42,144 sq mi (109,153 sq km); its capital is Nashville. The Great Smoky Mtns. edge the eastern part of the state, while the Mississippi River is on its western boundary. The Tennessee River valley dominates much of the state. It has a moderate climate; about half is forested. American Indians, including Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Shawnee, inhabited the region when Spanish, French, and English explorers visited it in the 16th-17th century. It was included in the British charter of Carolina and in the French Louisiana claim, and was ceded to Great Britain after the French and Indian War. The first permanent settlement was made c. 1770. It was part of North Carolina until 1785, when the area's settlers broke away and formed the free state of Franklin. North Carolina relinquished its claim in 1789, and Tennessee became the 16th U.S. state in 1796. In 1861 it seceded from the Union; the hard-fought American Civil War battles of Shiloh, Chattanooga, Stones River, and Nashville occurred there. In 1866 it was the first state readmitted to the Union. During the Reconstruction era, blacks lost what little power they had gained. After World War II, it became a testing ground for those involved in the civil rights movement. The state's economy is based on manufacturing. The Tennessee Valley Authority is the nation's largest electric-power generating system.