易克納唐

Akhenaton,亦作Akhnaton。,原名阿孟霍特普四世(Amenhotep IV)。

第十八王朝的埃及法老。繼任當時埃及已經征服巴勒斯坦、腓尼基(Phoenicia)、奴北亞(Nubia)。即位沒多久就開始鼓勵人信奉較不為人知的太陽神阿頓(Aton),認為祂是所有幸福之源。他還把姓氏由阿孟霍特普改為易克納唐(亦即對阿頓有益者),把首都從底比斯遷至尼羅河東岸的阿馬納(Jellel-Amarna)。他在這里開始營造一座新城。一種新的藝術風格於焉誕生,其焦點放在描述真實生活,而不是千篇一律的情況。易克納唐雖想重掌以往統治者的大權(當時大部分落入官僚和官員手中),但他一頭栽進新宗教的崇拜迷思中,無暇顧及朝政和邊防,以致喪失亞洲大量領土。死後由兩個女婿斯曼赫卡拉(Smenkhkare)和圖坦卡門(Jutankhamen)繼位,但圖坦卡門早死,軍隊接掌政權,廢除易克納唐的新宗教信仰。

前1353~西元前1336年在位

Akhenaton

Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (1539-1292 BC). He came to power during a period of Egyptian preeminence, with Egypt controlling Palestine, Phoenicia, and Nubia. Shortly after his reign began, he began to encourage the exclusive worship of the little-known deity Aton, a sun deity he regarded as the source of all blessings. Assuming the name Akhenaton (“One Useful to Aton”), he moved his capital from Thebes to present-day Tell el-Amarna to escape established religious powers and make a fresh start. A new art style that focused on the details of actual life rather than on timeless conditions became popular. In government, Akhenaton tried to recapture the old authority of the ruler, which had been largely diverted to bureaucrats and officials, but his focus on his new religion to the exclusion of affairs of state resulted in the disintegration of Egypt's Asian empire. He was succeeded by two of his sons-in-law, Smenkhkare and Tutankhamen, but on Tutankhamen's early demise the army took over the throne and Akhenaton's new religion was abandoned.