學習

對既有的知識、技術、習慣或性向,透過經驗、實踐或練習而取得修正的過程。學習包括結合過程(參閱association、conditioning)、感覺基料判別(discrimination of sense-data)、精神與感官學習(psychomotor and perceptual learning)(參閱perception)、模仿、概念形成、問題解決、內在學習等。動物的學習是由動物行為學家和比較心理學家在研究,比較心理學家多認為人類的學習與動物的學習是完全不同的平行線(參閱comparative psychology)。俄國的帕夫洛夫(Ivan Pavlov)及美國的桑代克(Edward L. Thorndike)是最早對結合學習行為進行實驗的心理學家。對這種早期「剌激﹣反射」理論(stimulus-response,S-R)的批評者,例如托曼(Edward C. Tolman),則指責剌激反射論者化約并且忽略了主體的內在行為;完形心理學(Gestalt-psychology)研究者則較注重知覺與學習的類型及形態之重要性;至於結構語言學則認為語言的學習是立基於一種發生學式習來的「文法」(grammar);而發展心理學家,例如皮亞杰(Jean Piaget),則強調學習的成長階段。近年來,認知科學則揭示學習是一種資訊處理(information processing)的形式,然而研究人腦的科學家,例如艾德曼(Gerald Maurice Edelman),則認為思考與學習是大腦路徑持續建立的過程。相關的研究主題還包括注意(attention)、理解(comprehension)、動機(motivation)、訓練移轉(transfer of training)。亦請參閱behavior genetics、behaviourism、educational psychology、imprinting、instinct、intelligence。

learning

Process of acquiring modifications in existing knowledge, skills, habits, or tendencies through experience, practice, or exercise. Learning includes associative processes (see association, conditioning), discrimination of sense-data, psychomotor and perceptual learning (see perception), imitation, concept formation, problem solving, and insight learning. Animal learning has been studied by ethologists and comparative psychologists, the latter often drawing explicit parallels to human learning (see comparative psychology, ethology). The first experiments concerning associative learning were conducted by Ivan Pavlov in Russia and Edward L. Thorndike in the U.S. Critics of the early stimulus-response (S-R) theories, such as Edward C. Tolman, claimed they were overly reductive and ignored a subject's inner activities. Gestalt-psychology researchers drew attention to the importance of pattern and form in perception and learning, while structural linguists argued that language learning was grounded in a genetically inherited “grammar.” Developmental psychologists, such as Jean Piaget, highlighted stages of growth in learning. More recently, cognitive scientists have explored learning as a form of information processing, while some brain researchers, such as Gerald Maurice Edelman, have proposed that thinking and learning involve an ongoing process of cerebral pathway building. Related topics of research include attention, comprehension, motivation, and transfer of training. See also behavior genetics, behaviorism, educational psychology, imprinting, instinct, intelligence.

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