米蘭

義大利語作Milano

義大利北部倫巴底區首府。西元前600年高盧人居住於此。西元前222年被羅馬人征服,當時名為梅迪奧拉農(Mediolanum)。西元452年遭阿提拉侵略,539年哥德人侵襲之,774年落入查理曼手中。其勢力在11世紀增強,不過在1162年為神圣羅馬帝國所摧毀。1167年被當作倫巴底聯盟的一部分重建,在1183年取得獨立。1450年斯福爾札建立了一個新王朝,1499年以後受法國和斯福爾札家族的輪流統治,直到1535年哈布斯堡王室奪占了它。拿破侖在1796年統領該地,1805年成為他在義大利王國的首都。1860年并入義大利。第二次世界大戰期間,米蘭遭到嚴重破壞,不過後來加以重建,F為義大利最重要的經濟中心,工業和紡織業發達。以時裝業和電子產品聞名,是義大利的金融中心。歷史古蹟包括中世紀的多摩大教堂,為歐洲第三大教堂;布雷拉宮(1651);15世紀修建的一座修道院,內有達文西的名畫《最後的晚餐》;以及史卡拉歌劇院。人口約1,302,808(1998)。

Milan

Capital (metro. area pop., 1996 est.: 1,306,000), Lombardy region, northern Italy. The area was settled by the Gauls c. 600 BC. Known as Mediolanum, it was conquered by the Romans in 222 BC. Attacked in AD 452 by Attila and in 539 by the Goths, it fell to Charlemagne in 774. Its power grew in the 11th century, but it was destroyed by the Holy Roman Empire in 1162. Rebuilt as part of the Lombard League in 1167 it achieved independence in 1183. In 1450 Francesco Sforza founded a new dynasty; after 1499 it was ruled alternately by the French and the Sforza family until 1535, when the Habsburgs obtained it. Napoleon took power in 1796, and in 1805 it became the capital of his kingdom of Italy. It was incorporated into Italy in 1860. Milan was heavily damaged during World War II, but was rebuilt. It is Italy's most important economic center, with industrial development and textile manufacturing. It is noted for its fashion industry and electronic goods production, and is Italy's financial center. Its historic sites include the medieval Duomo, Europe's third-largest cathedral; the Palazzo di Brera (1651); the 15th-century monastery that houses Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper; and La Scala opera house.

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