馬里蘭

美國東部,大西洋沿岸中部的州(1997年人口約5,094,000),面積27,091平方公里;首府亞那波里斯。該州的主要地理區是沿乞沙比克灣的沿海平原、皮埃蒙特高原的肥沃農田以及阿帕拉契山脈。西元前10,000年前後首先由晚冰河期的獵人占據,後來該地區居住著南蒂科克和皮斯卡塔韋部落。1608年約翰.史密斯船長給予乞沙比克地區建制權。英國國王在給巴爾的摩勳爵卡爾弗特的特許狀里包含了馬里蘭。1634年卡爾弗特的兄弟在圣瑪麗斯城建立了第一個居民點。馬里蘭成為享有宗教自由的第一個美洲殖民地。1760年代畫定了梅遜-狄克森線,解決了與賓夕法尼亞之間的邊界爭端。1788年馬里蘭成為批準美國憲法的第七個州。1791年該州讓出哥倫比亞特區作為新的聯邦政府首都。該州卷入了1812年戰爭(參閱Fort McHenry)。1845年在亞那波里斯成立了美國海軍官校。美國南北戰爭期間,馬里蘭留在聯邦內,但強烈的南方情緒導致戒嚴法的執行。戰後,馬里蘭作為向南部和中西部轉運消費品的重要集散地而繁榮起來。20世紀里,由於它位置鄰近全國聯邦政府,從而刺激了它的人口增長。它的經濟基礎主要是政府服務業和制造業。

Maryland

State (pop., 1997 est.: 5,094,000), eastern U.S. A middle-Atlantic state, it covers 10,460 sq mi (27,091 sq km); its capital is Annapolis. The state's main geographic regions are the coastal plain along Chesapeake Bay, the rich farming country of the Piedmont plateau, and the Appalachian Mtns. First occupied by late Ice Age hunters c. 10,000 BC, the area was later inhabited by the Nanticoke and Piscataway tribes. Capt. John Smith charted the Chesapeake Bay region in 1608. Maryland was included in a charter given by the British king to Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore. Leonard Calvert, his brother, founded the first settlement in 1634 at St. Marys City. Maryland became the first American colony to establish religious freedom. Its boundary dispute with Pennsylvania was settled in the 1760s with the drawing of the Mason-Dixon Line. In 1788 Maryland became the 7th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. The state ceded the District of Columbia as the site for a new federal capital in 1791. It was involved in the War of 1812, (see Fort McHenry). The U.S. Naval Academy was founded at Annapolis in 1845. Maryland remained in the Union during the American Civil War, but strong Southern sentiments resulted in the imposition of martial law. After the war, it prospered as an important entrep?t for consumer goods to the South and Midwest. During the 20th century its proximity to the national federal government spurred population growth. Its economy is based primarily on government services and manufacturing.